Belgrade is classified as a Beta-Global City. The Serbian Orthodox community is by far the largest, with 1,475,168 adherents. Belgrade's 2020 population is now estimated at 1,397,939.In 1950, the population of Belgrade was 432,028.Belgrade has grown by 28,538 since 2015, which represents a 0.41% annual change. Chipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras. Böhme rigorously enforced the rule that for every German killed, 100 Serbs or Jews would be shot. Byzantine Empire 539–829 Other hotels included Solun and Orient, which was built near the Financial Park. The high-speed rail that will connect Belgrade with Novi Sad, Subotica and Budapest is under construction, with the first half of 2020s planned for its beginning of operation. Between 10,000 and 20,000[130] Chinese people are estimated to live in Belgrade and, since their arrival in the mid-1990s, Block 70 in New Belgrade has been known colloquially as the Chinese quarter. Colloquially, the building was also referred to as the staro zdanje, or the 'old edifice'. [285] In 2006, Financial Times' magazine Foreign Direct Investment awarded Belgrade the title of City of the Future of Southern Europe. Most of the municipalities are situated on the southern side of the Danube and Sava rivers, in the Šumadija region. However, the majority of the land movement in Belgrade, some 90%, is triggered by the construction works and faulty water supply system (burst pipes, etc.). Other major libraries include the Belgrade City Library and the Belgrade University Library. The Pančevo Bridge, which crosses the Danube, was opened in 1935,[76] while King Alexander Bridge over the Sava was opened in 1934. British fashion designer Roksanda Ilincic, who was born in the city, also frequently presents her runway shows in Belgrade. [256], The city is also home to 195 primary (elementary) schools and 85 secondary schools. Belgrade has two state universities and several private institutions of higher education. [270], List of Belgrade's sister and twin cities:[271], Other friendships and cooperations, protocols, memorandums:[271]. On 3 September 1939 the first Belgrade Grand Prix, the last Grand Prix motor racing race before the outbreak of World War II, was held around the Belgrade Fortress and was followed by 80,000 spectators. It remained a hotel until 1903 before being demolished in 1938. In Savamala, the hotels Bosna and Bristol were opened. [186][187], The most prominent museum in Belgrade is the National Museum, founded in 1844 and reconstructed from 2003 till June 2018. [60][61] During his first reign (1815–1839), Prince Miloš Obrenović pursued expansion of the city's population through the addition of new settlements, aiming and succeeding to make Belgrade the centre of the Principality's administrative, military and cultural institutions. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. He shot the first motion pictures of Belgrade in the next year; however, they have not been preserved. [131][132] Many Middle Easterners, mainly from Syria, Iran, Jordan and Iraq, arrived in order to pursue their studies during the 1970s and 1980s, and have remained in the city. They have moving and dormant phases, and some of them have been recorded for centuries. Belgrade hosts many annual international cultural events, including the Film Festival, Theatre Festival, Summer Festival, BEMUS, Belgrade Early Music Festival, Book Fair, Belgrade Choir Festival, Eurovision Song Contest 2008, and the Beer Fest. [44], In 1427, Stefan's successor Đurađ Branković, returning Belgrade to the Hungarian king, made Smederevo his new capital. 1951 448,000 [10] While the first Christian Emperor of Rome —Constantine I, also known as Constantine the Great[24]—was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus (Jovian), was born in Singidunum. [217], The historic areas and buildings of Belgrade are among the city's premier attractions. [123], The 2014 Belgrade City Assembly election was won by the Serbian Progressive Party, which formed a ruling coalition with the Socialist Party of Serbia. [203] Belgrade bypass is connecting the E70 and E75 motorways and is under construction. [247] The Aleksandar Nikolić Hall is the main venue of basketball clubs KK Partizan, European champion of 1992, and KK Crvena zvezda. [83] Some of today's parts of Belgrade were incorporated in the Independent State of Croatia in occupied Yugoslavia, another puppet state, where Ustashe regime carried out the Genocide of Serbs. Daily connections link the capital to other towns in Serbia and many other European destinations through the city's central bus station. The new Belgrade Centre railway station is the hub for almost all the national and international trains. Of great importance also was the construction of independent Serbian political and cultural institutions, as well as the city's now-plentiful parks.  Kingdom of Serbia 1918 The recent population estimates give a total population of over 1 million. [136] Belgrade also used to have one of the largest Buddhist colonies in Europe outside Russia when some 400 mostly Buddhist Kalmyks settled on the outskirts of Belgrade following the Russian Civil War. Belgrade's location is so prized among nations that it has been fought over in at least 115 wars. During the construction of the neighbourhood from the 1970s, the terrain was systematically improved and the movement of the land is today completely halted.[114][115]. Dragutin (Hungarian: Dragutin István) is regarded as the first Serbian king to rule over Belgrade. Belgrade is home to many ethnicities from across the former Yugoslavia and the wider Balkans region. [41] The city hosted the armies of the First and the Second Crusade,[42] but, while passing through during the Third Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa and his 190,000 crusaders saw Belgrade in ruins. There is a lot of diversity within Belgrade, but the primary ethnicity in the city remains the Serbs. [71] The first permanent cinema was opened in 1909 in Belgrade. The S-train network, BG Voz, run by city government in cooperation with Serbian Railways, is a part of the integrated transport system, and has three lines (Batajnica-Ovča and Ovča-Resnik and Belgrade centre-Mladenovac), with more announced. [17] Also associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe,[18] and a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC. [147] Many global IT companies choose Belgrade as their European or regional centre of operations, such as Asus,[148] Intel,[149] Dell,[150] Huawei, Nutanix,[151] NCR etc. Global and continental championships in other sports such as tennis, futsal, judo, karate, wrestling, rowing, kickboxing, table tennis and chess have also been held in recent years. [207] The City of Belgrade itself owns 267,147 square metres (2,875,550 square feet) of rentable office space. Many criticised the move at the time due to the cost and the size of the building, and it soon became the gathering point of the Principality's wealthiest citizens. It is also home to the country's Central Bank. Habsburg Monarchy 1688–1690 Religion is a significant part of life in Belgrade and Orthodoxy makes up the majority of the religious affiliation in the city. On top of this, there are many parks, monuments, museums, cafés, restaurants and shops on both sides of the river. [156], According Cushman & Wakefield, Knez Mihajlova street is 36th most expensive retail street in the world in terms of renting commercial space.[157]. [210], The oldest public structure in Belgrade is a nondescript Turkish türbe, while the oldest house is a modest clay house on Dorćol, from late 18th century. Belgrade is the most important media hub in Serbia. [117], Belgrade is a separate territorial unit in Serbia, with its own autonomous city authority. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects. The neighbourhood of Mirijevo is considered to be the most successful project of fixing the problem. Serbian Despotate 1402–1427 This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter. [16] There are several Starčevo sites in and around Belgrade, including the eponymous site of Starčevo. In 1950, the population of Belgrade was 432,028. [265] The city is also served by Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) west of the city centre, near Surčin. The project is, however, quite controversial—there are a number of uncertainties regarding its funding, necessity, and its architecture's arguable lack of harmony with the rest of the city. During the late 1300s, Belgrade was home to numerous people fleeing Ottoman rule, and the population is thought to be near 40,000 to 50,000 around this time.