Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (854–925), "the Islamic Hippocrates" advanced experimental medicine, pioneering ophthalmology and founding pediatrics. He was interested in anatomy. It contained accurate diagrams of a human body. Interactive Timeline. To do this, the Sumerians employed divining techniques based on the flight of birds, position of the stars and the livers of certain animals. Hunter's student Benjamin Bell (1749–1806) became the first scientific surgeon in Scotland, advocating the routine use of opium in post-operative recovery, and counseling surgeons to "save skin" to speed healing; his great-grandson Joseph Bell (1837–1911) became the inspiration for Arthur Conan Doyle's literary hero Sherlock Holmes. In 1865 Joseph Lister (1827-1912) discovered antiseptic surgery, which enabled surgeons to perform many more complicated operations. The mortality rate for surgical patients immediately falls. Rubber gloves were first used in surgery in 1890. Perhaps it was performed on people with head injuries to release pressure on the brain. For centuries his writings dominated medicine. Paul of Aegina's (c. 625 – c. 690 CE) Pragmateia or Compendiem was highly influential. 1988 Apr;20(2 Suppl 2):2-12. Examples of healed fractures in prehistoric human bones, suggesting setting and splinting have been found in the archeological record. 59/2: 26-29, 2006. There were some important advances to the art of surgery during this period. [16], In the 13th century in Europe skilled town craftsmen called barber-surgeons performed amputations and set broken bones while suffering lower status than university educated doctors. [52][53][54] His work was groundbreaking and laid the foundations for a rapid advance in infection control that saw modern antiseptic operating theatres widely used within 50 years. In the 19th century surgery was greatly improved by the discovery of anesthetics. : English barbers and surgeons unite to form The United Barber-Surgeons Company. The first leg transplant took place in 2011 and the first womb transplant was carried out in 2012. [46] He brought an empirical and experimental approach to the science and was renowned around Europe for the quality of his research and his written works. With little or no formal training, they generally had a bad reputation that was not to improve until the development of academic surgery as a specialty of medicine rather than an accessory field in the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment.