[15] [13] Exhaustive lists of animals, plants and minerals have come down to us, as well as lists of Geographical features rivers, mountains, cities and peoples. [11] An important source of Mesopotamian toponymy is the great Babylonian encyclopedia Urra=hubullu and its commentaries. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFinkelstein1262 (, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geography_of_Mesopotamia&oldid=985053781, Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter, Articles needing expert attention from October 2011, Ancient Near East articles needing expert attention, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. - They used the rivers for trade and farming during flooding season. [13] Babylonians - The city of Babylon became the most powerful city in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia would soon fall back into its normal patchwork of small states. When people say Mesopotamia they are referring to a section of land in the Middle East between and around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Students are provided with a map of Mesopotamia and/ or a map of Iraq to map the physical and political characteristics of the region/country. Barley was the main cereal grain that ancient Mesopotamia produced because it could withstand the harsher climate and could feed many people. [13] Mesopotamia was a historical region situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq plus Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders. [14] Unlike Egypt, Mesopotamia -especially in the south- was barren of stone that could be quarried for construction." [12], Unlike the more unified civilizations of Egypt or Greece, Mesopotamia was a collection of varied cultures whose only real bonds were their script, their gods, and their attitude toward women. The term Mesopotamia and geographical position. From a practical point of view, it was probably in any case impossible to organize an empire that would embrace all Mesopotamia. [5] The coastland was similarly known as Gu-gubba (Akkadian Kisad tamtim) "bank of the sea.". For the trade with Mesopotamia there is both literary and archaeological evidence. Visit the Major Eras in World History Study Guide page to learn more. [5] In contrast with the arid plateau of Mesopotamia stretched the rich alluvial plain of Chaldea, formed by the deposits of the two great rivers that encircled it. - … Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were an agricultural based society that believed in the existence of many deities; however, they differed in the aspect of how they evolved as an agricultural society and whether they feared or praised their gods. [10] [13] It extended from the late fall to early spring, as we understand seasons today. Mesopotamia had two seasons: a rainy season and a dry season. This "bank" or kisad, together with the corresponding western bank of the Tigris (according to Fritz Hommel, the modern Shatt el-Uai), gave its name to the land of Chesed, whence the Kasdim or Kasdin of the Hebrew Bible. This vast flat is about 250 miles (400 km) in length, interrupted only by a single limestone range rising abruptly out of the plain, and branching off from the Zagros Mountains under the names of Sarazur, Hainrin and Sinjar. 509 seq.) | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Unfortunately, the rulers cannot be synchronized precisely with the kings of southern Mesopotamia before Shamshi-Adad I ( c. 1813- c. 1781 bce ). Sumer or south part of Mesopotamia was intersected with many channels, so the residents irrigated fields and exchanged products, which were excessive. On the west, Mesopotamia shared border with the Syrian – Mesopotamian steppe, while in the east with the mountain ravines of western Iran. [11] Because of all this, Mesopotamia was widely accepted as the “cradle of civilization”. After Cyrus II took Babylon, the bulk of Mesopotamia became part of tHe Persian Empire & Saw a rapid cultural decline.