Socioeconomic status (SES) is widely recognized as one of the biggest determinants of both physical and mental health. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Handbook of Psychological Assessment (Fourth Edition), 2019, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, SES is inextricably linked with poor health across the life span in both men and women. Although some tests (e.g., language comprehension) are more sensitive to education than others (e.g., orientation), both verbal and nonverbal test scores correlate with education. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Is there anything wrong with the value I entered?. Implications of these findings for the use of SES in social and behavioral science research are discussed. Zarui A. Melikyan, ... Antonio E. Puente, in Handbook of Psychological Assessment (Fourth Edition), 2019. Measuring socioeconomic status: reliability and preliminary validity for different approaches Assessment. An alternative approach to controlling for income levels is to use geocoded data to link census data on median family income in a defined area to data with confirmed cases of Down syndrome. Low quality education is associated with low cognitive performance and rapid decline (Fyffe et al., 2011; Manly, Schupf, Tang, & Stern, 2005). The “how” extends through generations. However, people are often uncomfortable disclosing their income and may feel tempted to “inflate” their earnings. Must statement of a problem in a research always comes from a literature review? If this was the case, it’s helpful for readers to know that this was the reasoning behind their definition of SES, and not necessarily because income is the best proxy for SES. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. According to de Wit (2008), impulsivity is a risk factor for initial drug experimentation and an inability to abstain from drug use. Instead, SES could be assessed through individual’s assets, debt, use of public assistance, neighborhood-level indicators of income, ability to pay monthly bills, and home and/or vehicle ownership (Diez Roux et al., 2001). Yana A. Kuchirko, Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda, in Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 2019. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal However, very young mothers, who are less likely to have completed high school, are unlikely to have a Down syndrome-affected birth. However, this is often impractical, requiring researchers to select only a few measures. Socioeconomic status is a robust predictor of variation in parenting and child outcomes. Impulsivity is correlated with a higher likelihood of becoming addicted to nicotine, as well as a lower rate of long-term abstinence (Blum et al., 2000; Kreek, Nielsen, Butelman, & LaForge, 2005). Torfs and Christianson (2003) tested the hypothesis that social and economic disadvantage experienced by a woman throughout her lifetime increases her risk of having a fetus with Down syndrome. técnicas y métodos de análisis empírico es prácticamente inexistente. After adjusting for maternal and paternal age, mothers with only a secondary education were roughly twice as likely and primary-educated mothers almost three times as likely as university-educated mothers to have a live-born infant with Down syndrome. Hauser, R. M., & Warren, J. R. Interestingly, other work has suggested that while children from poor families exhibited both more internalizing and more externalizing disorder symptomology, moving out of poverty only alleviated externalizing symptomology (though this was over a relatively short time scale of ∼4 years during childhood) (Costello, Compton, Keeler, & Angold, 2003). SES is inextricably linked with poor health across the life span in both men and women. Ecological studies in the United Kingdom found no association between local measures of socioeconomic status and the prevalence of Down syndrome (Lopez, Stone, & Gilmour, 1995). Pflege. Reading level can be used in multiethnic and multilingual comparisons as it accounts for variation in test performance independently of race or language (Cosentino et al., 2007; Manly, 2006). I have a puzzle to solve from my research questions. Education is frequently confounded with cultural factors, hence the fact that what is frequently assumed to be a result of cultural differences may often be explained by educational disparities (Byrd et al., 2004). It is a complex assessment measured in a variety of ways that account for a person’s work experience and economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation. Get the latest research from NIH: These data suggest that SES status is not the direct cause of smoking, but rather integration into low SES social networks may increase risk of smoking (Gecková et al., 2005). The investigators used routinely collected CBDMP data on live births from 1996 to 1997, with mother’s education level used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. However, this limited research paints a complex picture. The most readily available measure of socioeconomic status is parental education; in the United Kingdom, paternal occupational status is frequently used as a measure of socioeconomic status.