Which conformation describes the following Newman projection? Compound (b) does contain a tertiary carbon, as it is bonded to three other carbon atoms. For question 35 draw the product that would result from the arrow pushing mechanism. Explain why. The compound is considered slightly polar, because the carboxylic functional group has some polarity with the benzene ring. (b) Alcohol (c) ester (d) haloalkane (e) anhydride, this is similar to an ester, but the difference is the oxygen atom placement. How would the temperature of the ice, now water, and the room compare? Under certain conditions the two following reactions are second order, proportional to both reactants concentrations. 10-9.3/10-9.3=1. Make sure not to draw a pentavalent carbon in (a) (use the oxygen atom) and (b) (substitute the bromine and have it leave). ΔG=ΔH-TΔS=-1000-(200)(-2)=-600 cal/mol, so (c) is true. The hydride anion is negatively charged, and it is nucleophilic. What about the free energy? (a) There are 10 primary H's - incorrect, there are 12 primary H's, (c) There are 3 tertiary C's - incorrect, there are 2 tertiary C's, (d) There are no primary C's - There are 4 primary C's. Although the bond arrangement around the C atom in CH2Cl2 is symmetrical, the differing polarities of the C–H and C–Cl bonds means the effect of the polar bonds is not cancelled, so the molecule is polar. Determine, based on Coulombic interaction, if the following are likely to react. It is in a positive oxidation state hand has three electronegative halogens attached, and so the scandium center is an electron acceptor. (a) AlCl3 (b) H2O (c) ZnCl2 (d) ScCl3 (e) N3- (f) CH3CH2O-. (d) ScCl3 is a Lewis acid. (b) The hydride anion is negatively charged, and it is nucleophilic. (ii) From part (i), the equilibrium would lie to the left. The given information makes sense in that a larger percentage of the molecules are present in the Anti conformation due to its lower energy. (a) 2,3,4-trimethylhexane (b) nonane (c) 2,3-dimethylpentane (d) 3-methylheptane. (a) cyclopentane (b) 3,3,5,5-tetraethylheptane (c) methylcyclopentane (d) 2,3,4-trimethylpentane. The important thing here is the polarization of the C-Br bond, making the carbon electrophilic. (a) 10oC - k2=[e-(10,000/(1.986)(310))/e-(10,000/(1.986)(300))]k1= 1.71k1. (iii) If the Keq were calculated it be equal to 1. In each of the following compounds identify each carbon as either primary (1o), secondary (2o), tertiary (3o), or quaternary (4o). This process is thermodynamically favorable as the free energy decreases. There is no change in the entropy, and so ∆So=0. (a) (aspirin) (b) (dopamine) (c) (erythritol- sweetener), (d) (limonene- in oranges and lemons, subtle differences in stereochemistry make a difference in the smell). Given that 85% of all molecules are anti- and 15% of all molecules are eclipsed conformation along a certain C-C bond, take for example C2-C3 of butane, draw the two Newman projections. That is because these amino acids have equal numbers of carboxylic acid groups and amine groups. What plot involving both k and T would yield a straight line? Draw the following structures from the name. The alcohol has two lone pairs of electrons, and with a positive charge there is a Coulombic attraction. The higher the molecular weight the higher the boiling point, but also the more branched a molecule is the lower the boiling point. (a) 10 kcal mol-1 (b) 25 kcal mol-1 (c) 50 kcal mol-1. Nonpolar amino acids are amino acids that have no polarity. Draw the structures that correspond to the following names, correct any names that are not in accord with the rules of systematic nomenclature. This makes sense because the favors the left, so calculating the equilibrium to the right would mean a very small equilibrium constant. Also, give its IUPAC name. Which one would be the lowest in energy? (c), aldehyde is not in the molecule. Also, determine which way the equilibrium lies, left or right. Looking at the structure of an amino acid (as a zwitterion), it seems that the part of the molecule with the amino group and the carboxylic acid group are quite polar (the amino group has a positive hydrogen and the carboxylic acid group has a negative oxygen). (d) ScCl3 was seen earlier to be Lewis acidic, and it is electrophilic. ∆Go= -36 - 303.15(-35x10-3) = -25 kcal mol-1 Favorable, ∆Go= -36 - 1073.15(-35x10-3) = +1 kcal mol-1 Not Favorable, ∆Go= -24 - 303.15(0) = -24 kcal mol-1 Favorable, ∆Go= -24 - 1073.15(0) = -24 kcal mol-1 Favorable, (a) (i) H2O=Weaker Base HF= Weaker Acid; H3O+= Stronger Acid F-=Stronger Base, (ii) From above, the equilibrium would lie to the left, (iii) Using the pKa we can find the Ka for each acid, Ka=10-pKa HF Ka=10-3.45 and H3O+ Ka= 101.7. It is in a positive oxidation state and has two electronegative halogens attached, and so the zinc center is an electron acceptor. This makes these nonpolar amino acids to have a neutral charge. ΔGo=-(1.986)(273+25)ln(85/15)= -1027 cal or -1.027 kcal. The oxygen has two lone pairs of electrons, and is thus an electron donor.