[4], Palatial residences with rocaille interiors soon appeared In Paris. [8], Arabesque design by Claude III Audran (about 1700), Design for a writing desk by Gilles-Marie Oppenordt (1675-1700), Design for a mantlepiece by Nicolas Pineau (early 18th C.), Side table design by Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier (about 1739), Rocaille design with Chinese Figure by Jean Mondon (1736), Louis XV furniture was created by the collaboration of complex network of designers and craftsmen. It remains an essential aspect of many interior design styles. German word generally used to describe where a work of, Other chairs that were popular during the reign of Louis XV were fauteuils. Madame de Pompadour possessed one of these, made between 1748–52, with a varnish of red and a blue in the Chinese style, which combined rocaille and exoticism. It was usually reserved for frames and mountings. They included small varieties, such as the Console-Desserte, half-moon shaped, with a white marble and a simple wooden platform below supporting the legs, it was made of oak and mahogany, with slender tapering straight legs, with small drawers, discreet gilded bronze ornament, and a delicate ring of gilded bronze around the top. The finest models were usually made of oak and fir, covered with marquetry of rose wood, satin wood, and amaranth. Louis XVI Furniture History. From 1760 to 1790, the graceful curves of Rococo faded out of fashion, and Louis XVI style took its place. They were frequently described as whimsical, intensifying earlier Louis XIV pieces, though with more curves. The reform-minded prime minister of Louis XVI, Turgot, attempted to suppress the power of the corporations in 1776, but, meeting fierce resistance from the artisans, he withdrew his reforms, and then, a few months later, was forced to resign himself.[6]. or dressing table was a trendy piece of furniture for aristocratic ladies. During the reign of King Louis XV, artists and craftsmen developed several secretaire models. His frequent use of copper in colored marquetry has led many to place him above Boulle in terms of artistry and skill. This room, with its combination of comfort, intimacy and luxury, is among the most classic examples of Louis XVI style. The early versions by Boulle were made of ebony and dark wood, and had eight legs, and six drawers, which were decorated with gilded bronze handles. The new king had little interest in the arts, but his wife, Marie-Antoinette, and her brothers-in-law, the Comte de Provence (the future Louis XVIII) and the Comte d'Artois (the future Charles X), were deeply interested in the arts, gave their protection to artists, and ordered large amounts of furniture in the neoclassical style, inspired by Greco-Roman art. It usual had four feet, joined together an X-shaped or H-shaped brace for stability. An interesting type of dressing table is the heart-shaped model. This mark, called the Estampille, used a heated iron to mark the piece with the initials of the master. Later in the reign, a new variant was the commode a vantaux, where the drawers or shelves nside the cabinet were concealed with two doors. The version introduced in 1770 featured geometric designs and a neoclassical frieze around the plateau. salons created by the king and his mistresses Madame de Pompadour and Madame du Barry. They included Jean-François Oeben, Roger Vandercruse Lacroix, Gilles Joubert, Antoine Gaudreau, and Martin Carlin. [3], Robert Adam bookcase (1776); his work helped inspire the French neoclassical style, Cabinet doré of Marie-Antoinette, Palace of Versailles (1783), A majority of the top ébénistes were German or of German descent, which gave them a common language with Marie-Antoinette. First established in the Middle Ages, guilds operated in much the same way until their dissolution in 1791 during the French Revolution. Other small consoles featured discreet marquetry of ebony, rosewood, tinted beech, and ash wood. Check out the Blog for design ideas, style tips, and so much more. [9], Another original type that appeared under Louis XVI was the Fauteul de Bureau, or office chair. The faces of the commodes were decorated with geometric friezes of oak leaves, roses or serpents and drapery motifs, the early manifestation of the Greco-Roman Neoclassical style. The fronts of commodes became more rounded in form. French designers Westernized traditional subjects. Marquetry played a vital role in commode decoration. The legs gradually changed from s-curves to straight, often modeled after Greek or Roman columns, tapering to a point. [6], Betwewen 1755 and 1760, the forms of furniture and interior decoration began to change into what became known as the Second Style Louis XV, or the Style Transition. The romantic motifs and gilding accented these particular pieces beautifully. The later furniture featured decorative elements of Chinoiserie and other exotic styles. Unlike the joiners, ébénistes were not typically French and worked in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. https://styylish.com/fit-for-a-king-louis-xv-style-furniture-history Interestingly, furniture designs conformed to the lavish details of the interior woodwork, not vice versa. The armchairs of the middle Louis XV period (1723-1750) were smaller than those of the Louis XIV period, but more comfortable. The ebenistes Jean-Henri Riesener, Jean-François Leleu, Martin Carlin and David Roentgen and menuisier Georges Jacob were among the most important creators of the late Louis XV transition style. In addition to the guilds, there was another group of active furniture makers, the so-called royal cabinetmakers. The popularity of transformation pieces spread, and more artisans attempted to modify existing articles to create attractive new designs. All of them needed new furniture to match the new style and arrangement. Because of his young age, France was ruled by a Regent, Philippe of Orleans, until 1723. [7], A new form of commode, the Cartonnier, appeared in the 1760s, inspired by somewhat fantastic ideas of ancient Greek furniture. They were followed by the wealthy nobles who furnishe… ,” which is a French term for a specific decorating style which describes an continuous design on all drawers. A set of four of these chairs was made by Jean-Baptiste-Claude Sené for Madame Elizabeth, sister of Marie-Antoinette, and was delivered in 1789, the year of the beginning of the French Revolution. The French Revolution caused the dispersal of the royal furniture; most of the owners went to the guillotine, or fled into exile. Many of the marks today are difficult to read, and counterfeit marks were not unknown, since they could greatly increase the value of the furniture. The shapes of commodes became more boxlike, the front flat, and the legs shorter, though they retained their slight S curve. [13], Another new type of small table was the Bonheur-du-jour, usually used as a dressing table. Given the high value of signed pieces by famous craftsmen, Counterfeit Estampilles are not unknown. The most celebrated new type of desk invented under Louis XV was the Bureau à cylindre or rolltop desk, which appeared in about 1760. But while Baroque furniture caters to robust design and balance, the ornate details of Rococo were purposefully feminine and romantic. The new king had little interest in the arts, but his wife, Marie-Antoinette, and her brothers-in-law, the Comte de Provence (the future Louis XVIII) and the Comte d'Artois (the future Charles X), were deeply interested in the arts, gave their protection to artists, and ordered large amounts of furniture in the neoclassical style, inspired by Greco-Roman art. This form became known as the Chaise à la Reine, or "Chair of the Queen. Another popular variation of dossier was the à chapeau du gendarme, or policeman's hat. ,  a small desk with a hutch that debuted during this period. The Ebenist then covered the frame and native woods with thin pieces of exotic woods, called marquetry.