( 2 ) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, ( 3 ) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, ( 4 ) United Nations Statistical Division. [226] Worsening economic conditions led to unrest and triggered a political crisis in 2012. [326][327], In 2014, Romania had 32,500 companies active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of €2.6 billion. [66] After the Avar Khaganate collapsed in the 790s, Bulgaria became the dominant power of the region, occupying lands as far as the river Tisa. There are some regional differences: in western sections, such as Banat, the climate is milder and has some Mediterranean influences; the eastern part of the country has a more pronounced continental climate. [235]:17 It lies between latitudes 43° and 49° N and longitudes 20° and 30° E. The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills, and plains. The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. [150][151] The German and Austrian-Hungarian troops defeated the Romanian army and occupied three-quarters of the country by early 1917. Bran Castle, near Brașov, is one of the most famous attractions in Romania, drawing hundreds of thousands of tourists every year as it is often advertised as being Dracula's Castle. [201], In 1965, Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to conduct the country's foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union. [281] Metropolitan areas have been constituted for most of these cities. [158][161][162] Although minorities could establish their own schools, Romanian language, history and geography could only be taught in Romanian. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Romania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. [416][417] The traditional Romanian dress that otherwise has largely fallen out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in rural areas. [56][60] The Gepids took possession of the former Dacia province. Constanța [154] King Ferdinand again mobilised the Romanian army on behalf of the Entente Powers a day before Germany capitulated on 11 November 1918. [107] The Romanians' Orthodox faith remained only tolerated,[107] although they made up more than one-third of the population, according to 17th-century estimations. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009.[212]. [393] As of 2013[update], the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%. [166][167] The democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of King Carol II. Castles, fortifications, or strongholds as well as preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brașov, Bistrița, Mediaș, Cisnădie, or Sighișoara also attract a large number of tourists. The women's team won the world championship in 1962 and have enjoyed more success than their male counterparts in recent years. [233], Following the experience of economic instability throughout the 1990s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy, Germany and Spain. [7] More specifically, in the last decade, the population of Romania decreased by 7.5%, the most important moment for the country's demography being 2008, when the number of inhabitants dropped by 600,000 people. There are different estimates about the size of the total population of people with Romani ancestry in Romania because a lot of people of Romani descent do not declare themselves Romani. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest. [383], Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of Timișoara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800. [25], The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.[c][26]. [303] Romania's rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989 and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004, but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatisation of lines,[252] accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country. In this scenario, the public pensions scheme will be under large pressure by the severe drop in the number of young people expected to enter the labour market within the next decades, economists say. [50][51], The Carpians, Goths and other neighbouring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the 210s. [172] Romania was forced to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union on 26 June 1940, Northern Transylvania to Hungary on 30 August, and Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria in September. [380] Kindergarten is optional between three and six years. [382] Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. [210][211], The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party (PDSR then PSD) and the Democratic Party (PD and subsequently PDL). The Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).[10]. The National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (NIRDI) gives the following numbers: Slightly more than 10% of the population of Romania is formed of minorities of Romania. [463] In singles, Ilie Năstase was the first year-end World Number 1 in the ATP Rankings in 1973, winning several Grand Slam titles. [103] Increasing taxes outraged the Transylvanian peasants, and they rose up in an open rebellion in 1437, but the Hungarian nobles and the heads of the Saxon and Székely communities jointly suppressed their revolt. The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of the European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest. Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to decline gradually in the coming years as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. [99] A local dynasty ruled the Despotate of Dobruja in the second half of the 14th century, but the Ottoman Empire took possession of the territory after 1388. [82] Cooperation between the Cumans and the Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire is well documented from the end of the 11th century. [294] The economy is based predominantly on services, which account for 56.2% of the country's total GDP as of 2017, with industry and agriculture accounting for 30% and 4.4% respectively. [429], The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. [410], The list of World Heritage Sites includes six cultural sites located within Romania, including eight painted churches of northern Moldavia, eight wooden churches of Maramureș, seven villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery, and the Historic Centre of Sighișoara. [189][190], During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called for new elections in 1946, which they fraudulently won, with a fabricated 70% majority of the vote. [235]:29 [80][81] Significant Pecheneg groups fled to the Byzantine Empire in the 1040s; the Oghuz Turks followed them, and the nomadic Cumans became the dominant power of the steppes in the 1060s. Sources - Cos'è la piramide della popolazione? Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). World Population Prospects: 2019 Revision. [337] In recent years, Romania has ranked the lowest or second-lowest in the European Union by research and development spending as a percentage of GDP, standing at roughly 0.5% in 2016 and 2017, substantially below the EU average of just over 2%. [128][125], The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca authorised the Russian ambassador in Istanbul to defend the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia (known as the Danubian Principalities) in 1774. [217][218], Nevertheless, there have been efforts to tackle corruption. If you continue to navigate this website beyond this page, cookies will be placed on your browser. [179][182], After the Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, Iuliu Maniu, a leader of the opposition to Antonescu, entered into secret negotiations with British diplomats who made it clear that Romania had to seek reconciliation with the Soviet Union. [17] Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy based predominantly on services and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. In February 1947, he and others forced King Michael I to abdicate and leave the country and proclaimed Romania a people's republic. [473] Other Romanian athletes who collected five gold medals like Comăneci are rowers Elisabeta Lipa (1984-2004) and Georgeta Damian (2000-2008). Several writers rose to prominence in the 19th century, including: George Coșbuc, Ioan Slavici, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creangă, and Mihai Eminescu, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceafărul. [b] Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia. Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards. Of these, 650,000 were in kindergarten (three-six years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities). [275], In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental missile shield.[276]. [216] During 2017–2018, in response to measures which were perceived to weaken the fight against corruption, some of the biggest protests since 1989 took place in Romania, with over 500,000 people protesting across the country. [104] The formal alliance of the Hungarian, Saxon, and Székely leaders, known as the Union of the Three Nations, became an important element of the self-government of Transylvania. [140] The parliament adopted the first constitution of Romania in the same year. "Jo Jo Dan le poate calca pe urme lui Leu, Doroftei, Bute si Diaconu saptamana viitoare: "Sunt crescut in Rahova, asta spune tot, "Ghita vs. Verhoeven: Kickboxing's top heavyweights go to war on Twitter", "Adegbuyi: 'I'll show Wilnis why I'm ranked #1 at Heavyweight, Romanian Medals and Results in the Olympic Games, "40 years after perfect 10, gymnast Nadia Comaneci remains an Olympic icon", "Analysis. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Women’s Handball: CSM Bucharest Wins Champions League Trophy! The most successful club is Steaua București, who were the first Eastern European team to win the Champions League in 1986, and were runners-up in 1989. Anual cresc 17 orașe mici", "Evoluția populației României (milioane de locuitori)", World Population Prospects. The market for professional football in Romania is roughly €740 million according to UEFA.