Many Sunni religious leaders, including those inspired by Wahhabism and other ideologies have declared Shias to be heretics or apostates.[11]. Your IP: In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, religious tensions are more centered on Muslim immigrants amid the backdrop of Salafist or Islamist terrorism. [112], The Saudi government has often been viewed as an active oppressor of Shia Muslims because of the funding of the Wahabbi ideology which denounces the Shia faith. 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[59] Part of the animosity between the Alawites and the Sunni Islamists of the Muslim Brothers is due to the secularization of Syria, which the later holds the Alawites in power to be responsible for. This was viewed by many Sunny Muslims as an act of treason, which made them link al-Assad’s actions to his Alawite identity. Khamenei's speeches are extremely political and sectarian. [37] He often mentions extreme wishes such as the removal of Israel from the world map and fatwas directed towards those opposing the regime. His phrase lead to many different interpretations, leading to turmoil in the region but also within the country. During the Safavid Dynasty's reign sectarianism started to play an important role in shaping the path of the country. Sectarian definition, of or relating to sectaries or sects. [52] In an attempt to protect the minority communities against the majority Sunni population, France, with the command of Henri Gouraud, created five states for the following sects: Armenians, Alawites, Druzes, Maronite Christians and Sunni Muslims. We provide breaking news, Pakistani news, International news, Business news, Sports news, Urdu news and Live Urdu News. [80] Although not all ethnic groups of Yemen fit in this narrative, such as the Al-Akhdam and the Teimanim. [49] In addition to this growing position of non-Muslims through the Tanzimat reforms, the influence of European powers also came mainly to the benefit of the Christians, Druzes and Jews. [64] The conflict has therefore been described as being semi-sectarian, making sectarianism a factor at play in the civil war, but certainly does not stand alone in causing the war and has varied in importance throughout time and place. [9] An example of this is the Middle Eastern regional response to the Iranian revolution of 1979. Please type the word in search box to get its meaning. As outside Socialists often declared, it was evident that the blood of a dictator flowed in that sectarian's veins. The tensions concerning power relations of the religious authorities and the ruling power eventually played a pivotal role in the 1906 constitutional revolution which limited the power of the monarch, and increased the power of religious leaders. For example, the substantial Protestant population of France (the Huguenots) was expelled from the kingdom in the 1680s following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. This would seem disastrous in the give-and-take of politics but it is in keeping with sectarian religious doctrine. [10], Within Islam, there has been conflict at various periods between Sunnis and Shias; Shi'ites consider Sunnis to be damned, due to their refusal to accept the first Caliph as Ali and accept all following descendants of him as infallible and divinely guided. [106] During his decades long reign as head of state, he used Sa'dah's Salafist's ideological dissemination against Zaydi's Islamic revival advocacy. Please type the word in search box to get its meaning. Prior to John F. Kennedy, only one Catholic (Al Smith) had ever been a major party presidential nominee, and he had been solidly defeated largely because of claims based on his Catholicism. [69][70][71][72] Most political forces in Yemen are primarily characterized by regional interests and not by religious sectarianism. The Alawites are the second largest group, which make up around 10 percent of the population. You can listen to the pronunciation of the word Sectarianism in a clear voice from this page online through our voice dictionary a unique facility for dedicated users. [44] [132], After twenty-two days of discussions and negotiations, the surviving members of the 1972 parliament reached an agreement to end the Civil War on October 22, 1989. These sectarian labeled issues are politically charged. It may also more rigidly define the definition of orthodox belief within its particular group or organization, and expel or excommunicate those who do not support this newfound clarified definition of political or religious orthodoxy. The 1979 revolution led to changes in political system, leading to the establishment of a bureaucratic clergy-regime which has created its own interpretation of the Shia sect in Iran. Catholic-Protestant sectarianism has also been a factor in U.S. presidential campaigns. The definition of Sectarianism is followed by practically usable example sentences which allow you to construct your own sentences based on it. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins [71][73] Yemen’s northern population consists for a substantial part of Zaydis, and its southern population predominantly of Shafi’is. meaning in Urdu is However, a person feels better to communicate if he/she has sufficient vocabulary. Find meanings of Urdu words especially used in sher o shayari. [126] As such, the Lebanese encounter with European colonization altered the meaning of religion in the multi-confessional society because it "emphasized sectarian identity as the only viable marker of political reform and the only authentic basis for political claims. Noun. In the last two decades, as many as 4,000 people are estimated to have died in sectarian fighting in Pakistan, 300 in 2006. The Safavid rule allowed greater freedom for religious leaders. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt ruled Syria between 1831 and 1840. [109][108] This policy of divide and rule executed by Ali Abdullah Saleh worsened Yemen's social cohesion and nourished sectarian persuasions within Yemen’s society. [38], The political approach that the Islamic Republic of Iran has taken in the previous decades has led to the increase of tensions in the region. [78][79][84] Both international backings were not based on religious sectarian affiliation. [2] Sectarianization is an active, multi-layered process and a set of practices, not a static condition, that is set in motion and shaped by political actors pursuing political goals. You can also find multiple synonyms or similar words of Sectarian. They usually opted for a sect that adhered to a religion similar to the one in their home countries, thus not Muslims. However, it has to be said that their sectarian nature did not only attract these flows of support, but they also adopted a more sectarian and Islamic appearance in order to attract this support. [95][100][98] The 2000 USS Cole bombing resulted in US military operations on Yemen's soil. Bahout notes that this shift is likely due to how these communities are increasingly perceiving themselves as defending not only their share of resources and power, but also their very survival. [62] This changed after the protests and the following civil war began to be portrayed in sectarian terms by the regime, as a result of which people started to mobilize along ethnic lines. [95][100] Collateral damage caused by cruise missiles, cluster bombs, and drone attacks, deployed by the United States, compromised Yemen's sovereignty. In other cases, dissenters from this orthodoxy will secede from the orthodox organization and proclaim themselves as practitioners of a reformed belief system, or holders of a perceived former orthodoxy. Common examples are denominations of a religion, ethnic identity, class, or region for citizens of a state and factions of a political movement.. This is because their key strategy of survival lies in manipulating sectarian identities to deflect demands for change and justice and preserve and perpetuate their power. [79] Wahhabist Saudi Arabia and other Arab monarchies supported Muhammad al-Badr, the deposed Zaydi imam of the Kingdom of Yemen. [30] The 1906 constitutional revolution involved both constitutionalist and anti-constitutionalist clergy leaders. Over 1,000 Muslims and Christians were killed in the sectarian violence in the Central African Republic in 2013–2014. Sect. Sultan Selim the Grim, regarding the Shia Qizilbash as heretics, reportedly proclaimed that "the killing of one Shiite had as much otherworldly reward as killing 70 Christians. This caused the non-Muslims to gain privileges and influence. The Alawites were originally settled in the highlands of Northwest Syria, but since the twentieth century have spread to places like Latakia, Homs and Damascus. For sectarianism as a characteristic of sects, see, The Ottoman Tanzimat and European colonialism, Post-1979 Revolution: Islamic Republic of Iran, Hashemi, Nader, and Danny Postel. If you are a general user or webmaster, and want to know how it works? The Ottoman reform movement launched in 1839 and the growing European presence in the Middle East subsequently led to the disintegration of the traditional Lebanese social order based on a hierarchy that bridged religious differences. The civil wars in the Balkans which followed the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s have been heavily tinged with sectarianism. The Iranian 1979 revolution led to the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty and the establishment of the Islamic Government of Iran. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. You can find translation in Urdu and Roman Urdu that is firqa parasti for the word Sectarianism. At other times, sectarianism may be the expression of a group's nationalistic or cultural ambitions, or exploited by demagogues. [95][100][99], Ali Abdullah Saleh is a Zaydi from the Hashid’s Sanhan clan and founder of the nationalist party General People's Congress. Sunni Iraqi insurgency and foreign Sunni terrorist organizations who came to Iraq after the fall of Saddam Hussein have targeted Shia civilians in sectarian attacks. The most notable Religious leaders in Iran are named Supreme-leaders. [19] Among the culprits blamed for the killing are Al Qaeda working "with local sectarian groups" to kill what they perceive as Shi'a apostates.[19]. Some linguists have suggested that the earliest forms of Urdu evolved from the medieval (6th to 13th century) Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language that is also the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. The National Pact served to reinforce the sectarian system that had begun under the French Mandate, by formalizing the confessional distribution of the highest public offices and top administrative ranks according to the proportional distribution of the dominant sects within the population. [132] Lebanese Sunni groups splintered into armed factions as well, competing against one another and against the Christian militias.