0000008328 00000 n �iQ[XA�A���1)�1M1*&�]�kA��b�������M4Šj����J�QMS�M0��`��9Ա�aa2p�Q�F($��bxT�&�Q�Ћ �@���&��O��x5��\=�A�� ��]�!l0޼0��0m7XCὴ�� Æ���H�@� l2� .`�DI��d.6B��ਈ?d�lH��G�/C � 0����B�m�+V�H6L: �V��y�!q�A0݄�����G�/Y���m ��h;�7@�m=j�6��m+Mw�� ���m�I�p�ۇ�$���ۻ���ڷ���A��m�o������Pzߤ�{��]��M��S��V�����n����'���T����um������n���{�Z������ӷ_����{ׯ�~�n��z�����/��v���}~���������;]�n�����m~f���������O��ߚc��m����ǪN[�!��O����ֵ�Kۭ/E���v������_����b��y�����[��]/]5_�u��Iz�֯o{�^���������/Ҵ���ׇ���������?��ﰱQ^�Q�}����`�K�����*���.߄����ثV���׻������^�_�/z���z�������W�����B��C:{W���}�"s������ ����� ߐ���;�����H��xo�oz���߾΀��O�u��dro�}����{�����u ����o��C�}~����/��߷�����i����}��M����������������7��]����������K}�k���z,s����߼w�����~���u�ڠ��q4 ���5[�����OO�4��ޕ��~��������V��߯ޓk�������޿Uv�m�]k�����}{׽w�/���~�k׊��T��O���{����v�m%Ku�Ҽ+J�>��{z������V�I������Um/M$�mi=��v��k��i*� 0 %PDF-1.6 %���� {�}�k�[���O����G!UAH���wC�� sF;��m���A�� �m\Iu��&�kD�/CW^aC�������%�~Lxg��4�z_�H���#� B�7.���q��(��~��J However, it’s quite prone to decaying and is known for being difficult to work. 1 0 obj << /Author () /Creator (FINEREADER) /Producer () /CreationDate (D:20011008173656) /ModDate (D:20011008173656) >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 244 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 493 720 ] /Resources 245 0 R /Contents 246 0 R /Thumb 248 0 R >> endobj 245 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /F0 4 0 R /F1 8 0 R /F2 12 0 R >> /XObject << /im1 250 0 R >> >> endobj 250 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Name /im1 /Width 2055 /Height 3000 /BitsPerComponent 1 /ColorSpace /DeviceGray /Filter /CCITTFaxDecode /DecodeParms << /K -1 /EndOfLine false /EncodedByteAlign false /Columns 2055 /EndOfBlock true >> /Length 251 0 R >> stream This the measurement of a wood species’s strength to withstand force pushed inward from end grain to end grain. Plywood I-beams are strong and used to support floors and roofs in homes and other building projects. 0000063755 00000 n <<8887C4D35E5F72409404713E702F5AF8>]>> 225 0 obj<>stream �(M�DA�a W��b�GB!�B!�#������ a������� 0000046847 00000 n Plywood is among the strongest of all building materials. 0000084640 00000 n Though it’s fairly inexpensive, the heartwood offers a clean appearance that finishes well. startxref A Flitch Beam has a single steel plate sandwiched between the lumber not multiple 8ft lengths of plywood that would be found on a large garage door opening. 0000023210 00000 n They share a few other characteristics that further separate them from the pack. 179 47 Woodworking. Their strength is derived from layers and grain patterns that run perpendicular to each other, creating split-proof construction that can support weight that would collapse single post beams. (�>�Tz���{s�t�@�1����4%����Y} �J��ٝϼ݅| Also, the presence of knots in the wood dulls saw blades more quickly. �i���h$�hS!�0®�I�~�zv�ui�]����Ҹ���[V:��0��Ǡ����m���hDDC0�\ �&�� 1i�� [�:���68�*�lRv�?�b��i�11 �N�S†0�5�V��!D+_��0U'g��W� ����6!�8�ҵ�&D`���ZMXn�y!�4-�aa���=0NC��D0�P��9�&9��+oL����A��(@B"P�DDCGf�q��tb"D\��""""8��qqƖ>8�T��F�ZI�ޒ��$�I|-��+ F)�O��$� �ت����&U"�Rʶ ͙�Tw8�a2ܞEH�Vw��cC;�MH�-���g'��ne�,�o��Ww}��4�O﻾�w���wz�������;5�*��]�d��������2,��CD8�gJ˙��Ɓ��$ Strength enhancement of timber beams using steel plates – review and experimental tests 89 Conference on Timber Engineering 2014, WCTE 2014, Quebec City , 10-14 August 2014, paper no. 0000030397 00000 n 0 They are not applicable to other uses. This means that the wood species best suited for your project will change depending your the application’s needs. Though it’s not the strongest softwood, Western Cedar’s resistance to decay makes it a good candidate for roof shingles and siding. Be sure the construction adhesive you use is recommended for subfloors. Consequently, this nearly threatened species is best left for rough products like pallets and plywood. Thus, cypress is often used in applications that require both resistance to decaying & extreme strength. Nothing completes a wood piece better than a neatly applied finish. 0000009328 00000 n AG��EV;_�����,�Z�����Pni �T'��`[��C1�W+�}��Rb֖��r��w���La���V�F_��g�pP� ����K���Y�.D,����C^�K!�Ñ���\P��7 �ݐ ���7>2x�%�q:-�^�(~�7m��\3Gѻ#E�ܓ��R��E3s������r�t�%$��'. 0000035251 00000 n plywood or 1×4 to the undersides of the exposed joist ends. "XȘ�c*ȭ�߀�� �靗]0�j�# �N4��t�i�F�� �� �{�L-n������O�w��0�{��/�u����ݾ#�A�V���z�H��N�� ܍߿��%a%�j��~���~�K����Sa�p�^�8"�; 6�TE��3��m���OX���l4��������oW�����XdqJ �����_o��צ��Bޯ�����:�F��|lsD7�+t�׭��i%���G�A��Wä��:K��)��oΏ��p������u���k��#��� �4������'H�KosL ����o��������M�)~��t߇T?�����l�cƿ#�Y���K��t�+��#��U��ڇJ�����[������-{���#�������w�{ѧ7�G�?�������_��_��[Oߨ��_��d? And more times than... What's a Carriage Bolt? ����������������]-#B!��D$k�Hb"$�ɹ(2�;.GeH�jF��*Z &��Ha�]�o�ɒ!�#�!Dz Hemlock offers a decent amount of strength for its density and hardness. And given that white cedar is resistant to rotting, it’s an ideal candidate for fence posts, outdoor benches, and roofing materials. Traditionally, wood beams are large timbers that are placed in various parts of your house, where extra strength is needed. The beams will be three-ply pressure-treated SP number two 2 by 12s, using 12-foot long lumber cut to fit the distances between the supporting posts. 0000031022 00000 n As a result, not every lumber yard chooses to carry it. 0000009251 00000 n Native to the Pacific Northwest, Western Cedar is a staple for home exteriors. �� $�{[@� �A�)�i�{TӴ-�`�A6%h0�{�!1 �p"$�2A� !����A��nČ�0�0� @� ��0���#�@ ��T �h. 0000049214 00000 n This paper describes the loading tests carried out on box beams of two different lengths but of the same cross section. 0000002475 00000 n �1z�,�A�O��L��yU��z�ϸ��#D���UT˚��̀xiځQ�y�[0':���ʹ ���!V�/)ΉS�W��Z�����Uz��֠����������Z�J��U�*�Y��R�o%�KA-R__Ik�_��R�Z��FO_0�Z�_ϥ��y�j�3�L&��" _KS�E=#1�~����K������������D�Aצ����_Z�KK�m-t�-R�V��K�$��$�^�Z�V������A� ��j�$��ZJ�Ҋմ*(&�U�u�kڬSa'I�~8�bA���������ap�m*=��T�&�alB�-��H��S�&)��DD���1P��1 ��� D.) Fig. xref 0000045966 00000 n Cut two headers (the boards that will be perpendicular to the joists) and mark lines on them indicating where the joists will go. Found throughout the Pacific Northwest, this giant species of pine is known for its dimensional stability. That is, the wood maintains its size when exposed to different temperatures and humility levels. 0000004214 00000 n Nail or screw the two posts to one side of the beam on the X side of your two marks. Plywood Strengths. �E2�ܽ�WU�qb�F���1c���uMa j��ו2E]�nQ����p�u�M�4w��h�a! Lastly, Knotty Ponderosa Pine is available too for wall paneling and decorative applications. Cut the beam and two posts. ?���~��s�?�OW��?���L=�K�'���o���/�a��u�o��+��a~N�а��a�_���'P|�����wނ����;_����_���~���������M��D�������o���)���A��ᾑ������7��^��_������O�������f���_��o�������a���/������S�K�7��7�Ӻz�PO�7�_��T��C���_���������_����~�����fw����_��j����Z�պ���d?�'��3O߮����>�����7[^�}l�i���s}Wҳ�������j���m������3[���{�մ�KN�wW�6�7j��O^��[/����Aa�Lq�zwݥt�v��ݶ��0Tӆ�b���6!�J�N�M�[\&��mA��+i�bP퍵[�m$� ��a4ӃI�A��X�)S� 6�A�i��D8���ب��$ӕ�b�[(tбM� ��M9E��1b�Sª� �N���T�a6��BU �i���P0�0����[S@L&Nɹ�3̠Њj�S%jX�4��d� �a�`��:!&%<1(zv�� 0000039925 00000 n First of all, they also tend to be much more elastic. Also known as bald cypress, this softwood shares the same resistance to decaying as many cedar species do. �� ��=��Fiٳ˙��4���G2���H>l�4͙h(DOgL�D0A��i�e?�l�g�@��h��b�"L���s� 4��F�`����aa0� � �=�E�x��XA��^ ϘA�� �a0����Dݡ|�4^9�&N�77E�hr3�y�a� tgh�am��v��_7�иan�I�h��v؞��]�� ��]�m5 v�����щ��c�m͍��/�:N�p�� ��_�[�M�w���wa#cF�8A=6�Bd�:N��ߴ��Y��=Si];M7T�mS���N�‘� 6��#�_ӽ;M��m'qI��Hq�����ol �N�:PE�+i>�S�BкV�տ���6��T��O�+��m䱤�iS��4�[ش�]6�^���hv=hzV�N�ӎ��ب��k������[hc��������+ u_�~;�z\v���^������_�����������! F��G��#�G�`K ynj@f#�|�xb�@�8�r��C c�< Since this softwood is native to the Northeast, it’s easier to find for North Americans living in Great Lakes region, New England, Northern Appalachia, Southeastern Canada, & the adjacent areas.