Together, Marshall and Houston mapped a long-term strategy to challenge and eradicate segregation in the United States that focused chiefly but not exclusively on education. Until his retirement from the highest court in the land, Justice Marshall established a record for supporting the voiceless American. Marshall founded the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund in 1940. Drama Desk, Emmy, and Tony awards’ winner and Oscar nominee, Laurence Fishburne plays civil rights victor Thurgood Marshall, Sr. in a one-man Broadway play entitled Thurgood. When the High Court heard another death penalty case, there was a 7-2 vote to reinstate capital punishment in 1976, bitterly disappointing him. Thurgood Marshall Jr. Is Giving Thousands to a Private Prison PAC Marshall, Jr., has been on the board on the second largest private prison company in the United States since 2002. He is serving or has served on various boards, specifically the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service, Board of Trustees of the Ford Foundation, National Fish and Wildlife Association, Corrections Corporation of America, Third Way, National Women's Law Center, University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service, and Supreme Court Historical Society. Broadway.com describes Thurgood as: “a triumph of courage—not just for the man, but for the nation he bravely challenged and proudly served.” Dans ce cadre, en 1936, Thurgood Marshall se fait connaître par sa plaidoirie avec Charles Hamilton Houston du cas Murray v. Pearson (en) devant la Cour d'appel du Maryland. In Grace under Pressure ", " Our whole constitutional heritage rebels at the thought of giving government the power to control men’s minds ". argued before the court by Charles Houston, extended the Maryland Murray v. Pearson decision to the entire nation, maintaining that a state with a single law school could not discriminate on the basis of race. Born in Baltimore, Maryland on July 2, 1908, Thurgood Marshall was the grandson of a slave. Lincoln University in rural Pennsylvania, is one of the nation's oldest Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Just before graduation, he married his first wife, Vivian "Buster" Burey. Thurgood Marshall, Jr. Born: 12-Aug-1956 Birthplace: New York City. The school was chartered in 1854 as the Ashmun Institute and described by one of its early presidents as "the first institution found anywhere in the world to provide a higher education in the arts and sciences for male youth of African descent." Thurgood Marshall, Jr.Thurgood Marshall Jr. represents client interests before Congress, the executive branch and independent regulatory agencies. Sweatt v. Painter (1950) Bakke asserted that the university had violated his Fourteenth Amendment rights when 16 minority students with lower grades than he had been admitted to the medical school, while he had been denied. Fishburne, the recipient of Drama Desk, Tony and Emmy awards as well as a nomination for an Academy Award, has an acting career that spans more than 35 years. His later Supreme Court colleague William Brennan wrote of Marshall's stories, "They are brought to life by all the tricks of the storyteller's art: the fluid voice, the mobile eyebrows, the sidelong glance, the pregnant pause and the wry smile. 1980-1991: Forging Ahead "I was on the verge of a nervous breakdown for a long time, but never quite made the grade," he commented. Marshall nevertheless excelled at Howard, graduating first in his class in 1933. (The Fund became a separate organization in 1957.) C'est dans cet établissement qu'il découvre la Constitution des États-Unis, à l'occasion d'une punition scolaire où il doit apprendre par coeur celle-ci. After completing high school in 1925, Thurgood followed his brother, William Aubrey Marshall, at the historically black Lincoln University in Chester County, Pennsylvania. À l'université Lincoln, il fait la connaissance de Kwame Nkrumah, le futur président du Ghana, du poète Langston Hughes ou encore du jazzman Cab Calloway. Thurgood Marshall had given his life to the crusade for civil rights and justice for all, leaving an indelible imprint on history and on the lives of future generations of Americans. The photo is Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity pledges (Marshall is 2nd from right in middle row). Furthermore, Marshall’s parents were against segregation, and instilled education as a means of uplift for their children. However, he never compromised the values, beliefs and convictions that had guided his success as a lawyer who was often credited as being a leading architect of the civil rights movement. "Charlie Houston insisted that we be social engineers rather than lawyers," Marshall said in a 1992 interview published by the American Bar Association. Thurgood Marshall est membre de la Cour suprême pendant vingt-quatre ans, rédigeant les arrêts de plusieurs décisions importantes concernant les droits civiques des Afro-Américains et des minorités, à la protection constitutionnelle des droits individuels, en particulier les droits des accusés vis à vis du gouvernement. He earned baccalaureate and juris doctor degrees from the University of Virginia. One of Marshall's punishments for talking too much involved the U.S. Constitution. She enrolled in a teacher’s training program at Thurgood Marshall College Fund member institution Coppin State College. "Under Marshall, the NAACP's legal staff became the model for public interest law firms," wrote one of his biographers, Mark Tushnet. By 1990, amid failing health and as the sole justice appointed by a Democratic president, Justice Marshall continued writing strongly-worded dissents in response to the Court’s notably regressive stand on civil rights cases. Thurgood Marshall, né Thoroughgood Marshall, est le fils de William C. Marshall, un steward d'un yacht club, et de Norma A.Marshall, une institutrice. held that institutions of higher learning could not discriminate solely on the basis of race to meet the state's segregation requirements. Le bâtiment de la cour d'appel du deuxième circuit à New York porte son nom. Nationality: United States Executive summary: Partner, Bingham McCutchen. He wrote dissents in every death penalty case and every case in which black defendants charged that prosecutors used race as a basis for not allowing black jurors. Marshall convinced the NAACP to abandon that approach and said he would accept only cases that challenged segregation itself. Throughout the 1980s, Justice Marshall continued to argue strategically and vigorously in cases that asserted a more expansive focus on civil rights in areas such as the homeless, the indigent and prisoners with mental problems. Une fois diplômé, Thurgood Marshall s’inscrit au barreau et s'installe comme avocat à Baltimore. Marshall described himself as a "hell raiser" as a child, and while his naturally argumentative nature may have gotten him into a certain amount of trouble, it would prove a useful trait as a lawyer. Surely, Justice Marshall recognized that the stories made us – his colleagues – confront walks of life we had never know.". The Court voted 6-3 in support of Justice Marshall’s arguments, giving him a needed victory. The case involved a young white man, Allan Bakke, who sued the University of California at Davis. During this period, Mr. Marshall was asked by the United Nations and the United Kingdom to help draft the constitutions of the emerging African nations of Ghana and what is now Tanzania. Marshall is remembered as the first African American Supreme Court Justice. McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950) declared that racially restrictive covenants preventing the sale of property to African Americans or other minorities could not be enforced by the state and were therefore null and void. Over the years, as more conservative justices were appointed to the High Court, justices such as Justice Marshall and his ally Justice William Brennan, slowly became the minority. In a dissenting opinion, Justice Marshall argued that the right to an education should be regarded as a fundamental constitutional right and when state policies have the effect of discriminating on the basis of wealth, the policies should be subject to judicial scrutiny. Il repose au cimetière national d'Arlington (comté d'Arlington, Virginie). "None of us got where we are solely by pulling ourselves up by our bootstraps," Marshall said later. Thurgood Marshall obtient son baccalauréat universitaire en droit en 1933,,,,. Before his subsequent nomination to the United States Supreme Court in 1967, Thurgood Marshall won 14 of the 19 cases he argued before the Supreme Court on behalf of the government. Shelly v. Kraemer (1948) Over the next three days, he suffered two more heart attacks while hospitalized, marking the beginning his 15-year struggle with maintaining the rigors of serving on the conservative majority Supreme Court amid his deteriorating health. Furman v. Georgia in 1972 prompted Justice Marshall to become the leader of the justices who were opposed to the death penalty. He serves on the boards of Corrections Corporation of America and the Ford Foundation and was appointed by President George W. Bush on the recommendation of Senator Harry Reid to serve as a member of the board of governors of the United States Postal Service. After a brief period in New York City, the family moved to a racially diverse, largely middle class neighborhood in Baltimore called Druid Hill, although he attended segregated schools, graduating from the city's Colored High School in 1924 when he was only 16 years old. After the parents won in the lower courts and appeals court, the Supreme Court reversed the rulings. Paramount in Houston's outlook was the need to overturn the 1898 Supreme Court ruling, Plessy v. Ferguson which established the legal doctrine called, "separate but equal." His mother pawned her wedding and engagement rings to help pay the tuition. His commitment to racial justice led him and his staff to develop ways of thinking about constitutional litigation that have been enormously influential far beyond the areas of segregation and discrimination.". Ces différents arrêts mettent à mal la portée de l'arrêt Plessy v. Ferguson, qui était la pierre de voûte des lois ségrégatives des États du Sud des États-Unis et de la doctrine appelée « separate but equal » (séparés mais égaux) et qui sera définitivement révoqué par le Civil Rights Act de 1957 et le Civil Rights Act de 1964. ISBN 0-19-506557-3. Marshall's record of success in striking down discriminatory and segregationist laws was extraordinary, winning 29 of 32 cases he argued. Marshall wanted to attend the University of Maryland Law School but did not apply after it became clear that he would not be admitted into the segregated institution. Thurgood's professional background includes service in each branch of the federal government and in the private sector. Later in 1999, President Clinton nominated Marshall to serve as the Director of the United States Marshals Service, our nation’s oldest federal law enforcement agency. Une statue de Thurgood Marshall a été érigée à Baltimore, à l'emplacement où se trouvait la Cour suprême de l'État du Maryland quand elle a jugé la cas Murray v. Pearson.