The army is commanded by the chief of the Hellenic Army General Staff (HAGS), which in turn is under the command of Hellenic National Defence General Staff (HNDGS). Anax (GR): king. Proknèmis (GR): greave., Hellenic Ministry of Defense – Official Site, Hellenic National Defense General Staff – Official Site, Hellenic Army General Staff – Official Site,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Zooiarchos (GR): elephant commander. Eirènè (GR): peace. Exeligmos Makedonikos (GR): ‘Macedonian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the file-leader does an about-face on the spot and the rear-rankers counter-march to form up behind him. Prootostatès (GR): front-ranker. Spartiatès (GR): Spartan member of syssition entitled to full citizen rights. This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 22:59. Kranos (GR): helmet. All Greek words have been transcribed in the Latin alphabet. Dathapatish (PE): 'commander of ten'; squad leader. Drepanèphoros (GR): scythed chariot. Agoogè (GR): Spartan upbringing. [7], After Kapodistrias' assassination in 1831 and in the subsequent internal turmoil over the next two years, however, the regular army all but ceased to exist. Thoorakitès (GR): soldier wearing body armour. Ilarchès (GR): ‘wing commander’; cavalry officer. Katoikos (GR): fief holder; military settler; soldier granted land to support himself. Distinct meanings of the same word are indicated by numbers between brackets. Oxybelès (GR): catapult. Under its supervision, the Greeks had adopted the triangular infantry division as their main formation, but more importantly, the overhaul of the mobilization system allowed the country to field and equip a far greater number of troops than it had in 1897: while foreign observers estimated a mobilized force of approximately 50,000 men, the Army eventually fielded 125,000, with another 140,000 in the National Guard and reserves.[15][16]. Thyreos (GR): shield. In the chain of command, graduates of the two military academies in Athens and Thessaloniki are considered higher in seniority compared to professional officers of the same rank who graduate from specialized military schools. Pentèkontoros (GR): galley with fifty oarsmen on one level. Xenagos (GR): mercenary commander. Parazoonion (GR): shortsword; dagger. Trièrès (GR): trireme; oared warship with three levels of rowers. Please see Pictures Galleries for Royalty Free images for Educational uses. "ΣΤΡΑΤΗΓΙΚΟ ΔΟΓΜΑ – Προς ένα ρεαλιστικό αποτρεπτικό δόγμα". Anabasis (GR): march inland. Epitagma (GR): supporting force. According to the latest developments, up to 2015, all active divisions will dissolve, but all brigades will acquire one more manoeuvre battalion, largely eliminating the distinction between mechanized and armoured formations, thus creating a new type brigade, which will be named Strike Brigade. Exelasis (GR): cavalry charge. Klaros (GR): fief; tract of land. Plèrooma (GR): ship's crew. Peltophoros (GR): 'shieldbearer'; soldier armed with light shield. Synoomotia (GR): file; squad. Thyreophoros (GR): ‘shield-bearer’; skirmisher equipped with large shield. After the war, Greece incorporated Dodecanese. Hippotoxotès (GR): horse archer. Akrobolos (GR): skirmisher. Palton (GR): javelin. Thanvabara (PE): archers; bowmen. They stood shield to shield in rows of eight to sixteen soldiers deep. Metaichmion (GR): ‘no-mans land’; space separating two armies. Dimoirites (GR): half-file leader; NCO. Ancient Greece consisted of various cities which were more or less politically independent and were at that time were known as poleis. [5], The main missions of the Hellenic Army are the defence of the state's independence and integrity, the safeguarding of national territory, and the decisive contribution to the achievement of the country's policy objectives.[6]. Katapeltaphetès (GR): (1) artilleryman; (2) artillery instructor. Klèrouchos (GR): fief holder; military settler; soldier granted land for his upkeep. Andreia (GR): courage. Hoplitikon (GR): heavy armed part of an army. The heavy equipment and weaponry of the Hellenic Army is mostly of foreign manufacture, from German, French, Italian, American, British and Russian suppliers. All Greek words have been transcribed in the Latin alphabet. The Hellenic Army Emblem is the two-headed eagle with a Greek Cross escutcheon in the centre. The Hellenic Army is also the main contributor to, and "lead nation" of, the Balkan Battle Group, a combined-arms rapid-response force under the EU Battlegroup structure. Hazarapatish (PE): ‘commander of a thousand’; Persian officer. Hypomeioon (GR): 'inferior'; second grade citizen; Spartan lacking full rights as homoios but still subject to military service obligation. Taxis (GR): (1) battle order; (2) military unit; regiment. Universal conscription was introduced in 1879, and under the premiership of Charilaos Trikoupis, in 1882–1885 major steps were undertaken to improve the training and education of the officer corps: a French military mission was called to Greece, new schools were founded and Greek officers were sent abroad for studies, and efforts were made to make officers on active service refrain from participating in politics and focus on their professional duties. Parapleuridion (GR): armoured horse trapping. These units included archers, slingers, javelin throwers, as well as those equipped with clubs and swords. Synaspismos (GR): locked shields formation. Dilochitès (GR): double-file leader; junior officer. Gastraphetès (GR): ‘belly bow’; heavy crossbow/light catapult. Asapatish (PE): cavalry commander. Myrias (GR): ‘ten thousand’; myriad; Persian military unit. As of 2012, the Hellenic Republic has mandatory military service (conscription) of 9 months for all males between the ages of 18 and 45. Kryptès (GR): 'secret agent'; Spartan who roamed covertly through the territory to look for signs of possible helot rebelliousness. Amphippos (GR): cavalryman with two mounts. Teichos (GR): wall. Polemikon (GR): trumpet signal for the charge. 'Hoplite' can be translated as 'man-at-arms'. Misthios (GR): soldier serving for pay; mercenary. Tropaion (GR): trophy; commemorative victory sign erected to mark the turning of the tide of battle. Thalamax (GR): rower on lowest rowing level of a galley; alternative term for thalamios (GR). Aretè (GR): virtue; valour; martial distinction. Hèmilochitès (GR): half-file-leader; NCO. Halysidootos (GR): mail coat. Misthophoros (GR): mercenary. Aulètès (GR): flute-player. During the WWI, a disagreement between King Constantine and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos caused a National Schism, but eventually a united Greece joined in 1917 the Allies. Lithobolos (GR): ‘stonethrower’; torsion gun. Kybernètès (GR): helmsman. Aporthètos (GR): unconquered; unplundered. Chlamys (GR): cloak. Enoomotarchès (GR): commander of an enoomotia (GR); junior officer. Please note that some of the Persian terminology is derived from educated guesswork rather than hard evidence. [18], There are three classes of personnel in the Hellenic Army, namely professional, volunteer and conscript. Tiara (GR): characteristic Persian headgear; hood. Hyparchos (GR): officer. There are four major military commands which supervise all army units, Although divisions still exist, having the role of forward commands, the Army is mainly organized in brigades, that follow the typical NATO standards consisting of five battalions, three manoeuvre, one artillery, one support and some other company sized formations. Uniforms of officers (left) and enlisted men (right) in the Greek Army in the first period of King Otto's reign. Dromos (GR): charge on the run. The maintenance of high operational readiness for the prevention and effective confrontation of dangers and threats, as well as the ensuring of rapid response capability. Kestrosphendonè (GR): special type of bolt used by slingers as a short range missile. Dathabam (PE):'unit of ten'; squad. Salpinx (GR): trumpet. Exeligmos Lakoonikos (GR): ‘Laconian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the file-closer does an about-face on the spot and the file-leader leads his men past the file-closer. Hetairos (GR): companion; (1) aristocratic warrior; (2) Macedonian heavy cavalryman. Hippakontistès (GR): mounted javelinman. Strateuma (GR): military campaign. The first king of the newly independent Greek kingdom, the Bavarian prince Otto, initially relied on a 4,000-strong German contingent. Hypozygion (GR): pack animal. Asthetairos (GR): ‘city companion’; title borne by Macedonian infantryman, possibly an alternative name for the pezhetairoi (GR) from the northern districts of the kingdom. The Ghost Army. The equipment for one soldier weighed altogether as much as seventy pounds. Aichmophoros (GR): spearbearer. Dorydrepanon (GR): shafted sickle. Stratia (GR): army. Parastatès (GR): ranker. Syskènios (GR): ‘tent partner’; Spartan member of military mess association. Athanatoi (GR): ‘immortals’; nickname of the infantry guard corps of the Persian king which was always kept at its establishment strength of 10.000 men by direct substitution of losses among its complement. Takabara (PE): ‘shield-bearers’; Persian peltastès (GR). Mora (GR): Spartan military unit. Chiliarchia (GR): ‘unit of thousand’; military unit. Sitèresion (GR): ration allowance. The contribution to international security and peace. Ekdromos (GR): 'out runner'; hoplite leaving the phalanx (GR) formation to chase light troops. Syllochismos (GR): deployment by file. Zeugitès (GR): ‘owner of span of oxen’; citizen owning enough to serve as a hoplite. Peltastès (GR): shieldbearing javelineer. Glossary of Roman military terms, A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | X | Z. Agèma (GR): ‘leading part’; elite unit. Saurootèr (GR): butt-spike. Gorytos (GR): (1) quiver; (2) combined bowcase and quiver. Grosphomachos (GR): skirmisher equipped with javelins. Pais basilikos (GR): royal page. Hypèretès (GR): officer. Phylax (GR): guard; sentry. Oothismos aspidoon (GR): ‘shield shoving’ or ‘shield pushing’; the sort of rugby scrummage which followed the clash of two phalanges (GR) when neither of them broke under the first charge. Logas (GR): picked soldier. Hippeus (GR): ‘horseman’ or ‘knight’: (1) cavalryman; (2) elite infantryman; title of picked Spartan hoplite. Epimelètès (GR): officer. A cavalry was formed from the wealthier classes and would use javelins to harass the opponent’s phalanx. Polemistès (GR): warrior; soldier. Special forces personnel during an exercise, firing an LRAC F1, Greek Army Aviation CH-47SD Chinook transport helicopter, This article is about the land force of modern Greece. Plagiophylax (GR): flank guard. Dilochia (GR): double-file. Pylooros (GR): gate keeper. A foot solider in the ancient Greek army was known as a hoplite. The dismal performance of the Hellenic Army in the war of 1897 led to a major reform programme under the administration of Georgios Theotokis (1899–1901, 1903–1904 and 1906–1909). The Hellenic Army (Greek: Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece. Anaklètikon (GR): signal to retreat. Phygè (GR): flight. Pezomachos (GR): infantryman. Sèmeiophoros (GR): standard-bearer. Hippikè (GR): cavalry. Like in the social structure of ancient Greece, aristocratic class got the higher positions in the military hierarchy also. Monomachia (GR): single combat. Hamippos (GR): infantry skirmisher fighting mixed with the cavalry. Taxiarchès (GR): officer. Most combat arms are called "Arm" (Όπλον). Polemarchos (GR): senior officer. Exeligmos (GR): counter-march. In the phalanx, the army worked as a unit in a … During peacetime, the Army has the following main objectives: Alexander Ypsilantis (in Sacred Band uniform) crosses the Pruth, starting the Greek War of Independence. Syngenès (GR): ‘relative’; Persian guard cavalryman. Spolas (GR): type of soft body armour; either a leather or linen corselet or a thickly woven tunic. Basilikos (GR): royal.