Sugiharto Sugiharto Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang, Central Java, … Assir M, Nasir N, Mansoor H, Waseem T, Ahmed H, Riaz F. Effect of Carica papaya leaf extract on platelet count in dengue fever: a randomized controlled tirals (PLEAD TRIAL). The most devastating was the papaya dieback disease, which affected approximately 800 hectares of plantation, destroyed approximately 1 million trees nationwide with total losses estimated at US$ 58 million. 2009;103(9):867–70. (2016). Haematocrit values were similar in both groups. Currently, early detection of the disease symptoms and destroying the affected plants seemed to be the best control strategy in preventing outbreaks spreading into other areas. 0000016930 00000 n Rapid progress and change of functional genomics analyses had allowed new insights and challenges in understanding the complex mechanism of plant disease resistance (Rosli and Martin, 2015; Seo and Choi, 2015; Singh et al., 2017). The diagnosis of DF was based on WHO definitions, and only patients with platelet count< 50 × 109/L were included, but inclusion and exclusion criteria were not well defined, and measures to minimize bias were not described. statement and (2017). California Privacy Statement, Phenotypic changes and disease symptoms development were observed, and expression levels of these genes were affected by the pathogen infection when analyzed using real-time PCR. It is one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae 26,27 . (2016). "�s��da���~� H�J��|%�1����&�����kv%� |��*F)��ძh�I��n a��ST Attempts had also been made to investigate bacteria cell-to-cell communication system known as quorum sensing and its signal molecule, N-Acyl-L-Homoserine Lactone (AHL), which is responsible for pathogenicity in some Gram-negative plant pathogens. KT833848), and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) (GenBank Accession No. Host gene expression study by initiating host-pathogen interaction to induce papaya dieback was conducted using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology (Khairun et al., 2010). Hamid, M. H., Janna, O. Infect. After excluding three studies which did not fulfill inclusion criteria and one study where the full paper could not be obtained despite repeated attempts to contact the authors, 9 papers remained. Buletin Teknologi MARDI 11, 1–11. <> PhD Dissertation, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor. Review Paper Introduction The papaya tree belongs to a small family — Caricaceae having four genera in the world. Recovery of platelet counts as well as other clinical indicators of favourable outcome (duration of hospital stay, prevention of plasma leakage, life threatening complications, and mortality) were assessed. Since then, papaya is planted for subsistence consumption and commercial purposes. Open Access. Plants upon infection were said to be capable of developing SAR, which induced the defense mechanism and conferred long lasting protection against a spectrum of microorganisms (Conrath, 2006). This was further supported by earlier observations made by Gardan et al. This review focuses on different properties of papaya as a multi-faceted plant. 0000019308 00000 n In Malaysia, papaya was initially planted as a smallholder crop throughout the country. Specific causal agent of papaya dieback disease was yet to be identified at that time and a pathogen cocktail was used to induce the disease. 1. doi: 10.3390/ijms12010039. 9:1380. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01380. 2011;9:6–9. 279, 13645–13651. 0000005100 00000 n 0000009481 00000 n This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Biotechnol Adv. Today it is cultivated throughout the tropical world and into the warmest parts of the subtropics. 74, 1673–1682. The data items extracted from each eligible study included: location of the trial, participant demographics, patient characteristics of test and control groups, severity of disease, details of interventions, and outcome measures. However, this still does not address the problem associated with the fruit’s inherent short shelf-life property. 3 0 obj Rashid et al. 2011;343:d5928. Antioxidant-mediated response of a susceptible papaya cultivar to a compatible strain of Erwinia mallotivora. Excessive fluid therapy is also known to contribute to mortality in patients with plasma leakage, due to the development of pulmonary oedema during the recovery phase. The damaged trees caused total fruit yield losses with estimated 200,000 metric tons, equivalent to US$ 58 million (Maktar et al., 2008; Roshidi, 2010). J. Syst. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, Translational Research in Tropical Crops – From the Lab Bench to the Field (2007). The white latex of papaya containing the enzyme, papain, can be used to tenderize meat. 0000006510 00000 n (2015) revealed that low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya fruits helped to control postharvest fungal infection and extended the fruit’s shelf-life up to 28 days with good commercial quality. Keywords: Carica papaya var. “NHO1 as a potential vascular related defense gene against papaya dieback disease,” in Proceedings of Regional Conference on Science, Technology and Social Sciences, Selangor. CP extract may reduce the duration of hospital stay (mean difference − 1.98 days, 95% confidence interval − 1.83 to − 2.12, 3 studies, 580 participants, low quality evidence), and cause improvement in mean platelet counts between the first and fifth day of treatment (mean difference 35.45, 95% confidence interval 23.74 to 47.15, 3 studies, 129 participants, low quality evidence). J. Trop. 1, 47–73. Erwinia papaya causing papaya dieback in Malaysia. Efficacy and long-term safety of a dengue vaccine in regions of endemic disease. Funct. Physical stature of the transgenic plants was not significantly different from the non-transformed seed-derived papaya plants. Senaka Rajapakse. Expression of defense-related genes in papaya seedling infected with Erwinia mallotivora using real-time PCR. 27, 487–506. The method of randomization and exact selection methodology was not described in the study. Several antiviral agents and other host immune modulators are in the early stages of clinical evaluation, and will not be available for clinical use in the foreseeable future [7]. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. The first double-blind placebo controlled study on CP in DF was a multicenter trial from India [21]. 2012;4(4):196–202. The period of hospitalization was longer in the control group (p < 0.01). The gene of interest was cloned into a virus vector, pEAQ (Sainsbury et al., 2009), and the construct was transformed into the Agrobacterium. Int J Res Med. 0000119264 00000 n �Ew��&rg5�@a.�! We included prospective clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized) with a control group (placebo or no treatment). When comparative trials were available to combine into a meta-analysis, we analyzed the data using RevMan 5. doi: 10.1079/9780851996622.0174, Gardan, L., Christen, R., Achouak, W., and Prior, P. (2004). 0 Bioinformation. Two studies were double blind and one was single blind. N Engl J Med. doi: 10.1016/j.pmpp.2017.02.005, Wang, L. H., Weng, L. X., Dong, Y. H., and Zhang, L. H. (2004). 0000055004 00000 n Caricaceae in Tropical Crops. x��RKO�0��W���hI�!$� �C�v@x�Z۱ *�����q�ڪY�?۱�|����x#�m��0a�h�?��B'�V'Q�B{�R�r}�B����c(���8�t�$�Ӯ�����V�) �+q'ϔ�*�/*�rA��GFD�Ԍ9^ou_�E�+��V�XǛ�C�ۤ�:-�Ӫ,0�'��q Biological control of Phytophthora root rot of papaya with virgin soil. 0000002269 00000 n 0000008294 00000 n Modern biotechnology provides a cutting-edge technology in many areas such as agriculture, medicine, and environment. Sc. (2015) transformed those genes into embryogenic callus of Eksotika papaya by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. It took years to identify the actual causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Malaysia. A Monograph of the Fungus Genus Cercospora. Mat Amin, N., Rahim, M. Y. N., Redzuan, R. A., Tamizi, A.